Research & Development

Over 25 peer reviewed scientific papers support copper and and silver ionisation. For extracts of each paper please see the 'scientific papers supporting ionisation' box to the right. 


Dr-Birgitta-Bedford-in-Lab.jpgDr Birgitta Bedford is one of the founding partners of ProEconomy and has recently completed a PhD study into Legionella control (Pneumophila, pseudomas) at Cranfield University, UK.

During her PHD Birgitta researched the behaviour of Legionella in water systems, the detection of Legionella, the efficacy of all available techniques to control Legionella in water systems and the toxicity of copper and silver.

For her doctorate Birgitta set up two small scale rigs in copper and polyethylene piping which simulated a closed circuit water system as found in hospitals, care homes and hotels etc.

  • To compare the development of natural biofilms each rig incorporated removable sections that allowed Birgitta to examine increased biofilm density.
  • Daily water analyses were carried out to determine bacterial growth.
    • The results of her doctorate concluded that biofilm formation and bacterial growth in the plastic piped rig.

Legionella pneumophila and non-pneumophila species developed in both rigs and Birgitta is closely monitoring their behaviour.

She is also monitoring biofilm penetration and elimination of Legionella in the biofilm due to the copper and silver ions released by the Orca water treatment system into each rig, to compare the efficacy of the ions in both.

Additionally, Birgitta is hoping to find the point at which ionic silver becomes less active due to complexing with counter ions in water and she is conducting comprehensive tests into the development of resistance by Legionella to copper and silver.

For further information on any of these research projects please contact Birgitta via email at or by phoning +44 (0) 1525 854111 during office hours.